IUPAC-IUBMB Joint Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (JCBN)

Nomenclature of Carbohydrates

(Recommendations 1996)

World Wide Web version prepared by G. P. Moss

Department of Chemistry, Queen Mary and Westfield College,
Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS, UK

The recommendations in this version are identical to those in the published document prepared by A.D. McNaught (The Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 4WF, UK), see Pure Appl. Chem. 1996, 68, 1919-2008; Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. Biochem., 1997, 52, 43-177; Carbohydr. Res., 1997, 297, 1-90; J. Carbohydr. Chem., 1997, 16, 1191-1280 [Copyright IUBMB and IUPAC]. Any comments, corrections or suggestions for a future edition should be e-mailed to (Dr G P Moss), (Dr A D McNaught) or (Prof D Horton). In setting up the World Wide Web version some errors have been detected. The changes have been marked by error details which is a link to details of the change and where it applies. For problems in converting the text into a World Wide Web version see the IUPAC home page.

This version of the document uses graphics to display Greek letters. For a version using the font symbol click here. Not all computers and/or browser software support the font symbol.

In order to prepare the World Wide Web version the text has been divided into the following sections.

Contents with full details of sub-sections
2-Carb-0. Historical development of carbohydrate nomenclature
2-Carb-1. Definitions and conventions
2-Carb-2. Parent monosaccharides
2-Carb-3. The Fischer projection of the acyclic form
2-Carb-4. Configurational symbols and prefixes
2-Carb-5. Cyclic forms and their representation
2-Carb-6. Anomeric forms; use of [alpha] and [beta]
2-Carb-7. Conformation of cyclic forms
2-Carb-8. Aldoses
2-Carb-9. Dialdoses
2-Carb-10. Ketoses
2-Carb-11. Diketoses
2-Carb-12. Ketoaldoses (aldoketoses, aldosuloses)
2-Carb-13. Deoxy sugars
2-Carb-14. Amino sugars
2-Carb-15. Thio sugars and other chalcogen analogues
2-Carb-16. Other substituted monosaccharides
2-Carb-17. Unsaturated monosaccharides
2-Carb-18. Branched-chain sugars.
2-Carb-19. Alditols
2-Carb-20. Aldonic acids
2-Carb-21. Ketoaldonic acids
2-Carb-22. Uronic acids
2-Carb-23. Aldaric acids
2-Carb-24. O-Substitution
2-Carb-25. N-Substitution
2-Carb-26. Intramolecular anhydrides
2-Carb-27. Intermolecular anhydrides
2-Carb-28. Cyclic acetals
2-Carb-29. Hemiacetals and hemithioacetals
2-Carb-30. Acetals, ketals and their thio analogues
2-Carb-31. Names for monosaccharide residues
2-Carb-32. Radicals, cations and anions
2-Carb-33. Glycosides and glycosyl compounds
2-Carb-34. Replacement of ring oxygen by other elements
2-Carb-35. Carbohydrates containing additional rings
2-Carb-36. Disaccharides
2-Carb-37. Oligosaccharides
2-Carb-38. Use of symbols for defining oligosaccharide structures
2-Carb-39. Polysaccharides
Trivial Names for Carbohydrates, with their Systematic Equivalents
Glossary of Glycose-based Terms

Relevant references are quoted at the end of each section as well as all together at the end.

This document was prepared 1983-1996 by the Commission (JCBN) whose membership was: Chairmen: H.B.F. Dixon (UK), J.F.G.Vliegenthart (Netherlands), A. Cornish-Bowden (France); Secretaries: A. Cornish-Bowden (France), M.A. Chester (Sweden), A.J. Barrett (UK), J.C. Rigg (Netherlands); Members: J.R. Bull (RSA), R. Cammack (UK), D. Coucouvanis (USA), D. Horton (USA), M.A.C. Kaplan (Brazil), P. Karlson (Germany), C. Lièbecq (Belgium), K.L. Loening (USA), G.P. Moss (UK), J. Reedijk (Netherlands), K.F. Tipton (Ireland), S. Velick (USA), P. Venetianer (Hungary).

Additional contributors to the formulation of these recommendations:

An expert panel composed of D. Horton (USA) (Convener), O. Achmatowicz (Poland), L. Anderson (USA), S.J. Angyal (Australia), R. Gigg (UK), B. Lindberg (Sweden), D.J. Manners (UK), H. Paulsen (Germany), R. Schauer (Germany).

Members of the Nomenclature Committee of IUBMB (NC-IUBMB) (those additional to JCBN): A. Bairoch (Switzerland), H. Berman (USA), H. Bielka (Germany), C.R. Cantor (USA), W. Saenger (Germany), N. Sharon (Israel), E. van Lenten (USA), E.C. Webb (Australia).

American Chemical Society Committee for Carbohydrate Nomenclature: D. Horton (Chairman), L. Anderson, D.C. Baker, H.H. Baer, J.N. BeMiller, B. Bossenbroek, R. W. Jeanloz, K.L. Loening, W.A. Szarek, R.S. Tipson, W.J. Whelan, R.L. Whistler.

Corresponding Members of the ACS Committee for Carbohydrate Nomenclature (other than JCBN and the expert panel): R.F. Brady (USA), J.S. Brimacombe (UK), J.G. Buchanan (UK), B. Coxon (USA), J. Defaye (France), N.K. Kochetkov (Russia), R.U. Lemieux (Canada), R.H. Marchessault (Canada), J.M. Webber (UK).

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