Reaction: (S)-lactate = (R)-lactate
Other name(s): lacticoracemase; hydroxyacid racemase; lactic acid racemase; larA (gene name)
Systematic name: lactate racemase
Comments: The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.
Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9024-05-9
1. Huennekens, F.M., Mahler, H.R. and Nordmann, J. Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an α-hydroxy acid racemase. Arch. Biochem. 30 (1951) 77-89.
2. Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S. Racemase I cell-free racemase. Enzymologia 15 (1953) 259-266.
3. Goffin, P., Deghorain, M., Mainardi, J.L., Tytgat, I., Champomier-Verges, M.C., Kleerebezem, M. and Hols, P. Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum. J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 6750-6761. [PMID: 16166538]
4. Desguin, B., Goffin, P., Viaene, E., Kleerebezem, M., Martin-Diaconescu, V., Maroney, M.J., Declercq, J.P., Soumillion, P. and Hols, P. Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system. Nat Commun 5 (2014) 3615. [PMID: 24710389]
5. Desguin, B., Zhang, T., Soumillion, P., Hols, P., Hu, J. and Hausinger, R.P. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase. Science 349 (2015) 66-69. [PMID: 26138974]
6. Yu, M.J. and Chen, S.L. From NAD+ to nickel pincer complex: a significant cofactor evolution presented by lactate racemase. Chemistry 23 (2017) 7545-7557. [PMID: 28374531]