Enzyme Nomenclature

Continued from EC 1.13.12 to EC 1.14.12

EC 1.14.13

EC 1.14.13 With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen

See separate file for EC 1.14.13.51 to EC 1.14.13.100
EC 1.14.13.101 to EC 1.14.13.150
EC 1.14.13.151 to EC 1.14.13.238

Contents

EC 1.14.13.1 salicylate 1-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.2 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.3 now EC 1.14.14.9
EC 1.14.13.4 melilotate 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.5 imidazoleacetate 4-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.6 orcinol 2-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.7 phenol 2-monooxygenase (NADPH)
EC 1.14.13.8 flavin-containing monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.9 kynurenine 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.10 2,6-dihydroxypyridine 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.11 trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.12 benzoate 4-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.13 now EC 1.14.15.18
EC 1.14.13.14 trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.15 now EC 1.14.15.15
EC 1.14.13.17 now EC 1.14.14.23
EC 1.14.13.16 cyclopentanone monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.17 cholesterol 7α-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.18 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 1-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.19 taxifolin 8-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.20 2,4-dichlorophenol 6-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.21 flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.22 cyclohexanone monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.23 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.24 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.25 methane monooxygenase (soluble)
EC 1.14.13.26 now EC 1.14.18.4
EC 1.14.13.27 4-aminobenzoate 1-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.28 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6a-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.29 4-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.30 leucotriene-B4 20-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.31 2-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.32 albendazole monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.33 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase [NAD(P)H]
EC 1.14.13.34 leucotriene-E4 20-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.35 anthranilate 3-monooxygenase (deaminating)
EC 1.14.13.36 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate 3'-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.37 methyltetrahydroprotoberberine 14-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.38 anhydrotetracycline 6-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.39 nitric-oxide synthase (NADPH dependent)
EC 1.14.13.40 anthraniloyl-CoA monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.41 now EC 1.14.14.36
EC 1.14.13.42 deleted covered by EC 1.14.13.68
EC 1.14.13.43 questin monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.44 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.45 now EC 1.14.18.2
EC 1.14.13.46 (–)-menthol monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.47 (S)-limonene 3-monooxygenase
EC 1.14.13.48 transferred now EC 1.14.14.51
EC 1.14.13.49 transferred now EC 1.14.14.52
EC 1.14.13.50 pentachlorophenol monooxygenase

See the following files for:

EC 1.14.13.51 to EC 1.14.13.100
EC 1.14.13.101 to EC 1.14.13.150
EC 1.14.13.151 to EC 1.14.13.238

EC 1.14.13.1

Accepted name: salicylate 1-monooxygenase

Reaction: salicylate + NADH + 2 H+ + O2 = catechol + NAD+ + H2O + CO2

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): salicylate hydroxylase; salicylate 1-hydroxylase; salicylate monooxygenase; salicylate hydroxylase (decarboxylating)

Systematic name: salicylate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (1-hydroxylating, decarboxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9059-28-3

References:

1. Suzuki, K., Takemori, S. and Katagiri, M. Mechanism of the salicylate hydroxylase reaction. IV. Fluorimetric analysis of the complex formation. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 77-85.

2. Takemori, S., Yasuda, H., Mihara, K., Suzuki, K. and Katagiri, M. Mechanism of the salicylate hydroxylase reaction. II. The enzyme-substrate complex. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 58-68. [PMID: 4898626]

3. Takemori, S., Yasuda, H., Mihara, K., Suzuki, K. and Katagiri, M. Mechanism of the salicylate hydroxylase reaction. 3. Characterization and reactivity of chemically or photochemically reduced enzyme-flavin. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 191 (1969) 69-76. [PMID: 4309912]

4. Yamamoto, S., Katagiri, M., Maeno, H. and Hayaishi, O. Salicylate hydroxylase, a monooxygenase requiring flavin adenine dinucleotide. J. Biol. Chem. 240 (1965) 3408-3413.

[EC 1.14.13.1 created 1972]

EC 1.14.13.2

Accepted name: 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: 4-hydroxybenzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = protocatechuate + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here.

Other name(s): p-hydroxybenzoate hydrolyase; p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase; 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase; 4-hydroxybenzoate monooxygenase; 4-hydroxybenzoic hydroxylase; p-hydroxybenzoate-3-hydroxylase; p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydrolase; p-hydroxybenzoic acid hydroxylase; p-hydroxybenzoic hydroxylase

Systematic name: 4-hydroxybenzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Most enzymes from Pseudomonas are highly specific for NADPH (cf. EC 1.14.13.33 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase [NAD(P)H]).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 9059-23-8

References:

1. Hosokawa, K. and Stanier, R.Y. Crystallization and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 2453-2460. [PMID: 4380381]

2. Howell, L.G., Spector, T. and Massey, V. Purification and properties of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4340-4350. [PMID: 4402514]

3. Spector, T. and Massey, V. Studies on the effector specificity of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 4679-4687. [PMID: 4402938]

4. Spector, T. and Massey, V. p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Evidence for an oxygenated flavin intermediate. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 5632-5636. [PMID: 4403446]

5. Spector, T. and Massey, V. p-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Reactivity with oxygen. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 7123-7127. [PMID: 4404745]

6. Seibold, B., Matthes, M., Eppink, M.H., Lingens, F., Van Berkel, W.J. and Muller, R. 4-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. CBS3. Purification, characterization, gene cloning, sequence analysis and assignment of structural features determining the coenzyme specificity. Eur. J. Biochem. 239 (1996) 469-478. [PMID: 8706756]

[EC 1.14.13.2 created 1972, modified 1999]

[EC 1.14.13.3 Transferred entry: 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase. Now EC 1.14.14.9, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase. (EC 1.14.13.3 created 1972, deleted 2011)]

EC 1.14.13.4

Accepted name: melilotate 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate + NADH + H+ + O2 = 3-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate + NAD+ + H2O

Other name(s): 2-hydroxyphenylpropionate hydroxylase; melilotate hydroxylase; 2-hydroxyphenylpropionic hydroxylase; melilotic hydroxylase

Systematic name: 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propanoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37256-72-7

References:

1. Levy, C.C. Melilotate hydroxylase. Purification of the enzyme and the nature of the prosthetic group. J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 747-753. [PMID: 6017743]

2. Levy, C.C. and Frost, P. The metabolism of coumarin by a microorganism. V. Melilotate hydroxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 997-1003. [PMID: 4285850]

3. Strickland, S. and Massey, V. The purification and properties of the flavoprotein melilotate hydroxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 2944-2952. [PMID: 4348920]

4. Strickland, S. and Massey, V. The mechanism of action of the flavoprotein melilotate hydroxylase. J. Biol. Chem. 248 (1973) 2953-2962. [PMID: 4348921]

[EC 1.14.13.4 created 1972]

EC 1.14.13.5

Accepted name: imidazoleacetate 4-monooxygenase

Reaction: 4-imidazoleacetate + NADH + H+ + O2 = 5-hydroxy-4-imidazoleacetate + NAD+ + H2O

Other name(s): imidazoleacetic hydroxylase; imidazoleacetate hydroxylase; imidazoleacetic monooxygenase

Systematic name: 4-imidazoleacetate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Formerly EC 1.14.1.5.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9029-65-6

References:

1. Maki, Y., Yamamoto, S., Nozaki, M. and Hayaishi, O. Studies on monooxygenases. II. Crystallization and some properties of imidazole acetate monooxygenase. J. Biol. Chem. 244 (1969) 2942-2950. [PMID: 5772468]

[EC 1.14.13.5 created 1965 as EC 1.14.1.5, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.13.5]

EC 1.14.13.6

Accepted name: orcinol 2-monooxygenase

Reaction: orcinol + NADH + H+ + O2 = 2,3,5-trihydroxytoluene + NAD+ + H2O

Other name(s): orcinol hydroxylase

Systematic name: orcinol,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37217-34-8

References:

1. Otha, Y. and Ribbons, D.W. Crystallization of orchinol hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida. FEBS Lett. 11 (1970) 189-192.

[EC 1.14.13.6 created 1972]

EC 1.14.13.7

Accepted name: phenol 2-monooxygenase (NADPH)

Reaction: phenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = catechol + NADP+ + H2O

Glossary: o-cresol = 2-cresol = 2-methylphenol

Other name(s): phenol hydroxylase; phenol o-hydroxylase

Systematic name: phenol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme from the fungus Trichosporon cutaneum has a broad substrate specificity, and has been reported to catalyse the hydroxylation of a variety of substituted phenols, such as fluoro-, chloro-, amino- and methyl-phenols and also dihydroxybenzenes. cf. EC 1.14.14.20, phenol 2-monooxygenase (FADH2).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37256-84-1

References:

1. Nakagawa, H. and Takeda, Y. Phenol hydroxylase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 62 (1962) 423-426. [PMID: 14478080]

2. Neujahr, H.Y. and Gaal, A. Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Purification and properties of the enzyme from Trichosporon cutaneum, Eur. J. Biochem. 35 (1973) 386-400. [PMID: 4146224]

3. Neujahr, H.Y. and Gaal, A. Phenol hydroxylase from yeast. Sulfhydryl groups in phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum, Eur. J. Biochem. 58 (1975) 351-357. [PMID: 810352]

[EC 1.14.13.7 created 1972, modified 2011, modified 2016]

EC 1.14.13.8

Accepted name: flavin-containing monooxygenase

Reaction: N,N-dimethylaniline + NADPH + H+ + O2 = N,N-dimethylaniline N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): dimethylaniline oxidase; dimethylaniline N-oxidase; FAD-containing monooxygenase; N,N-dimethylaniline monooxygenase; DMA oxidase; flavin mixed function oxidase; Ziegler's enzyme; mixed-function amine oxidase; FMO; FMO-I; FMO-II; FMO1; FMO2; FMO3; FMO4; FMO5; flavin monooxygenase; methylphenyltetrahydropyridine N-monooxygenase; 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine:oxygen N-oxidoreductase; dimethylaniline monooxygenase (N-oxide-forming)

Systematic name: N,N-dimethylaniline,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (N-oxide-forming)

Comments: A flavoprotein. A broad spectrum monooxygenase that accepts substrates as diverse as hydrazines, phosphines, boron-containing compounds, sulfides, selenides, iodide, as well as primary, secondary and tertiary amines [3,4]. This enzyme is distinct from other monooxygenases in that the enzyme forms a relatively stable hydroperoxy flavin intermediate [4,5]. This microsomal enzyme generally converts nucleophilic heteroatom-containing chemicals and drugs into harmless, readily excreted metabolites. For example, N-oxygenation is largely responsible for the detoxification of the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) [2,6]

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37256-73-8

References:

1. Ziegler, D.M. and Pettit, F.H. Microsomal oxidases. I. The isolation and dialkylarylamine oxygenase activity of pork liver microsomes. Biochemistry 5 (1966) 2932-2938. [PMID: 4381353]

2. Chiba, K., Kubota, E., Miyakawa, T., Kato, Y. and Ishizaki, T. Characterization of hepatic microsomal metabolism as an in vivo detoxication pathway of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 246 (1988) 1108-1115. [PMID: 3262153]

3. Cashman, J.R. Structural and catalytic properties of the mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 8 (1995) 165-181.

4. Cashman, J.R. and Zhang, J. Human flavin-containing monooxygenases. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 46 (2006) 65-100. [PMID: 16402899]

5. Jones, K.C. and Ballou, D.P. Reactions of the 4a-hydroperoxide of liver microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenase with nucleophilic and electrophilic substrates. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 2553-2559. [PMID: 3949735]

6. Chiba, K., Kobayashi, K., Itoh, K., Itoh, S., Chiba, T., Ishizaki, T. and Kamataki, T. N-Oxygenation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by the rat liver flavin-containing monooxygenase expressed in yeast cells. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 293 (1995) 97-100. [PMID: 7672012]

[EC 1.14.13.8 created 1972 (EC 1.13.12.11 created 1992, part-incorporated 2006), modified 2006]

EC 1.14.13.9

Accepted name: kynurenine 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: L-kynurenine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): kynurenine 3-hydroxylase; kynurenine hydroxylase; L-kynurenine-3-hydroxylase

Systematic name: L-kynurenine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Formerly EC 1.14.1.2 and EC 1.99.1.5.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9029-61-2

References:

1. de Castro, F.T., Price, J.M. and Brown, R.R. Reduced triphosphopyridinenucleotide requirement for the enzymatic formation of 3-hydroxykynurenine from L-kynurenine. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78 (1956) 2904-2905.

2. Okamoto, H. and Hayaishi, O. Flavin adenine dinucleotide requirement for kynurenine hydroxylase of rat liver mitochondria. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 29 (1967) 394-399. [PMID: 6076241]

3. Saito, Y., Hayaishi, O. and Rothberg, S. Studies on oxygenases: enzymatic formation of 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenine from L-kynurenine. J. Biol. Chem. 229 (1957) 921-934.

[EC 1.14.13.9 created 1961 as EC 1.99.1.5, transferred 1965 to EC 1.14.1.2, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.13.9]

EC 1.14.13.10

Accepted name: 2,6-dihydroxypyridine 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: 2,6-dihydroxypyridine + NADH + H+ + O2 = 2,3,6-trihydroxypyridine + NAD+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): 2,6-dihydroxypyridine oxidase

Systematic name: 2,6-dihydroxypyridine,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 39279-38-4

References:

1. Holmes, P.E. and Rittenberg, S.C. The bacterial oxidation of nicotine. VII. Partial purification and properties of 2,6-dihydroxypyridine oxidase. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 7622-7627. [PMID: 4344227]

2. Holmes, P.E., Rittenberg, S.C. and Knackmuss, H.J. The bacterial oxidation of nicotine. 8. Synthesis of 2,3,6-trihydroxypyridine and accumulation and partial characterization of the product of 2,6-dihydroxypyridine oxidation. J. Biol. Chem. 247 (1972) 7628-7633. [PMID: 4636328]

[EC 1.14.13.10 created 1976]

EC 1.14.13.11

Accepted name: trans-cinnamate 4-monooxygenase

Reaction: trans-cinnamate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 4-hydroxycinnamate + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here.

Other name(s): cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase; oxygenase, cinnamate 4-mono-; CA4H ; cytochrome P450 cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; cinnamate 4-monooxygenase; cinnamate hydroxylase; cinnamic 4-hydroxylase; cinnamic acid 4-monooxygenase; cinnamic acid p-hydroxylase; hydroxylase, cinnamate 4-; t-cinnamic acid hydroxylase; trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; trans-cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase

Systematic name: trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating)

Comments: NADH also acts, more slowly. Involves a heme-thiolate protein (P-450).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9077-75-2

References:

1. Potts, J.R.M., Weklych, R. and Conn, E.E. The 4-hydroxylation of cinnamic acid by sorghum microsomes and the requirement for cytochrome P-450. J. Biol. Chem. 249 (1974) 5019-5026. [PMID: 4153152]

2. Russell, D.W. and Conn, E.E. The cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase of pea seedlings. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 122 (1967) 256-268. [PMID: 4383827]

[EC 1.14.13.11 created 1976]

EC 1.14.13.12

Accepted name: benzoate 4-monooxygenase

Reaction: benzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 4-hydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here.

Other name(s): benzoic acid 4-hydroxylase; benzoate 4-hydroxylase; benzoic 4-hydroxylase; benzoate-p-hydroxylase; p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase

Systematic name: benzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating)

Comments: Requires Fe2+ and tetrahydropteridine.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 39391-25-8

References:

1. Reddy, C.C. and Vaidyanathan, C.S. Purification, properties and induction of a specific benzoate-4-hydroxylase from Aspergillus niger (UBC 814). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 384 (1975) 46-57. [PMID: 236777]

[EC 1.14.13.12 created 1976]

[EC 1.14.13.13 Transferred entry: calcidiol 1-monooxygenase, Now classified as EC 1.14.15.18, calcidiol 1-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.13 created 1976, deleted 2016)]

EC 1.14.13.14

Accepted name: trans-cinnamate 2-monooxygenase

Reaction: trans-cinnamate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2-hydroxycinnamate + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): cinnamic acid 2-hydroxylase; cinnamate 2-monooxygenase; cinnamic 2-hydroxylase; cinnamate 2-hydroxylase; trans-cinnamic acid 2-hydroxylase

Systematic name: trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 53126-56-0

References:

1. Gestetner, B. and Conn, E.E. The 2-hydroxylation of trans-cinnamic acid by chloroplasts from Melilotus alba Desr. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 163 (1974) 617-624. [PMID: 4153528]

[EC 1.14.13.14 created 1976]

[EC 1.14.13.15 Transferred entry: cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase, now classified as EC 1.14.15.15, cholestanetriol 26-monooxygenase. (EC 1.14.13.15 created 1976, modified 2005, modified 2012, deleted 2016)]

EC 1.14.13.16

Accepted name: cyclopentanone monooxygenase

Reaction: cyclopentanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 5-valerolactone + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): cyclopentanone oxygenase

Systematic name: cyclopentanone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (5-hydroxylating, lactonizing)

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 37364-15-1

References:

1. Griffin, M. and Trudgill, P.W. The metabolism of cyclopentanol by Pseudomonas N.C.I.B. 9872. Biochem. J. 129 (1972) 595-603. [PMID: 4349113]

2. Griffin, M. and Trudgill, P.W. Purification and properties of cyclopentanone oxygenase of Pseudomonas NCIB 9872. Eur. J. Biochem. 63 (1976) 199-209. [PMID: 4313]

[EC 1.14.13.16 created 1976]

[EC 1.14.13.17 Transferred entry: cholesterol 7α-monooxygenase, now classified as EC 1.14.14.23, cholesterol 7α-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.17 created 1976, deleted 2016)]

EC 1.14.13.18

Accepted name: 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 1-monooxygenase

Reaction: 4-hydroxyphenylacetate + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = homogentisate + NAD(P)+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 1-hydroxylase; 4-hydroxyphenylacetic 1-hydroxylase; 4-HPA 1-hydroxylase

Systematic name: 4-hydroxyphenylacetate,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (1-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Also acts on 4-hydroxyhydratropate (forming 2-methylhomogentisate) and on 4-hydroxyphenoxyacetate (forming hydroquinone and glycolate).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 55326-44-8

References:

1. Hareland, W.A., Crawford, R.L., Chapman, P.J. and Dagley, S. Metabolic function and properties of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid 1-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas acidovorans. J. Bacteriol. 121 (1975) 272-285. [PMID: 234937]

[EC 1.14.13.18 created 1976]

EC 1.14.13.19

Accepted name: taxifolin 8-monooxygenase

Reaction: taxifolin + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = 2,3-dihydrogossypetin + NAD(P)+ + H2O

Other name(s): taxifolin hydroxylase

Systematic name: taxifolin,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (8-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein, converting a flavanol into a flavanone. Also acts on fustin, but not on catechin, quercetin or mollisacidin.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 39307-19-2

References:

1. Jeffrey, A.M., Knight, M. and Evans, W.C. The bacterial degradation of flavonoids. Hydroxylation of the A-ring of taxifolin by a soil pseudomonad. Biochem. J. 130 (1972) 373-381. [Medline UI: 4146277]

[EC 1.14.13.19 created 1976]

EC 1.14.13.20

Accepted name: 2,4-dichlorophenol 6-monooxygenase

Reaction: 2,4-dichlorophenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 3,5-dichlorocatechol + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase; 2,4-dichlorophenol monooxygenase

Systematic name: 2,4-dichlorophenol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Also acts, more slowly, on 4-chlorophenol and 4-chloro-2-methylphenol; NADH can act instead of NADPH, but more slowly.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 82047-82-3

References:

1. Beadle, C.A. and Smith, A.R.W. The purification and properties of 2,4-dichlorophenol hydroxylase from a strain of Acinetobacter species. Eur. J. Biochem. 123 (1982) 323-332. [PMID: 7075592]

[EC 1.14.13.20 created 1983]

EC 1.14.13.21

Accepted name: flavonoid 3'-monooxygenase

Reaction: a flavonoid + NADPH + H+ + O2 = a 3'-hydroxyflavonoid + NADP+ + H2O

See diagram for reaction in taxifolin or eriodictyol biosynthesis.

Other name(s): flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase; flavonoid 3-hydroxylase (erroneous); NADPH:flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase; flavonoid 3-monooxygenase (erroneous)

Systematic name: flavonoid,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3'-hydroxylating)

Comments: Acts on a number of flavonoids, including naringenin and dihydrokaempferol. Does not act on 4-coumarate or 4-coumaroyl-CoA.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 75991-44-5

References:

1. Forkmann, G., Heller, W. and Grisebach, H. Anthocyanin biosynthesis in flowers of Matthiola incana flavanone 3- and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylases. Z. Naturforsch. C: Biosci. 35 (1980) 691-695.

[EC 1.14.13.21 created 1983]

EC 1.14.13.22

Accepted name: cyclohexanone monooxygenase

Reaction: cyclohexanone + NADPH + H+ + O2 = hexano-6-lactone + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): cyclohexanone 1,2-monooxygenase; cyclohexanone oxygenase; cyclohexanone:NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating, 1,2-lactonizing)

Systematic name: cyclohexanone,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (lactone-forming)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). In the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, the nucleophilic species that attacks the carbonyl group is a peroxyflavin intermediate that is generated by reaction of the enzyme-bound flavin cofactor with NAD(P)H and oxygen [2]. This enzyme is able to catalyse a wide range of oxidative reactions, including enantioselective Baeyer-Villiger reactions [3], sulfoxidations [4], amine oxidations [5] and epoxidations [6].

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 52037-90-8

References:

1. Donoghue, N.A., Morris, D.B. and Trudgill, P.W. The purification and properties of cyclohexanone oxygenase from Nocardia globerula CL1 and Acinetobacter NCIB 9871. Eur. J. Biochem. 63 (1976) 175-192. [PMID: 1261545]

2. Sheng, D., Ballou, D.P. and Massey, V. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved in catalysis. Biochemistry 40 (2001) 11156-11167. [PMID: 11551214]

3. Stewart, J.D. Cyclohexanone monooxygenase: a useful reagent for asymmetric Baeyer-Villiger reactions. Curr. Org. Chem. 2 (1998) 195-216.

4. Chen, G., Kayser, M.M., Milhovilovic, M.D., Mrstik, M.E., Martinez, C.A. and Stewart, J.D. Asymmetric oxidations at sulfur catalyzed by engineered strains that overexpress cyclohexanone monooxygenase. New J. Chem. 23 (1999) 827-832.

5. Ottolina, G., Bianchi, S., Belloni, B., Carrea, G. and Danieli, B. First asymmetric oxidation of tertiary amines by cyclohexanone monooxygenase. Tetrahedron Lett. 40 (1999) 8483-8486.

6. Colonna, S., Gaggero, N., Carrea, G., Ottolina, G., Pasta, P. and Zambianchi, F. First asymmetric epoxidation catalysed by cyclohexanone monooxygenase. Tetrahedron Lett. 43 (2002) 1797-1799. [PMID: ]

[EC 1.14.13.22 created 1984, modified 2004]

EC 1.14.13.23

Accepted name: 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-monooxygenase

Reaction: 3-hydroxybenzoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): 3-hydroxybenzoate 4-hydroxylase

Systematic name: 3-hydroxybenzoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Acts also on a number of analogues of 3-hydroxybenzoate substituted in the 2, 4, 5 and 6 positions. Formerly EC 1.14.99.13.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37256-76-1

References:

1. Michalover, J.L. and Ribbons, D.W. 3-Hydroxybenzoate 4-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas testosteroni. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55 (1973) 888-896. [PMID: 4148586]

2. Premkumar, R., Subba Rao, P.V., Streeleela, N.S. and Vaidyanathan, C.S. m-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-hydroxylase from Aspergillus niger. Can. J. Biochem. 47 (1969) 825-827. [PMID: 4390252]

[EC 1.14.13.23 created 1972 as EC 1.14.99.13, transferred 1984 to EC 1.14.13.23]

EC 1.14.13.24

Accepted name: 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-monooxygenase

Reaction: 3-hydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+ + O2 = 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD+ + H2O

Other name(s): 3-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase; m-hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase; 3-hydroxybenzoic acid-6-hydroxylase

Systematic name: 3-hydroxybenzoate,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Acts also on a number of analogues of 3-hydroxybenzoate substituted in the 2, 4, 5 and 6 positions; NADPH can act instead of NADH, but more slowly.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 51570-26-4

References:

1. Groseclose, E.E. and Ribbons, D.W. 3-Hydroxybenzoate 6-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 55 (1973) 897-903. [PMID: 4357436]

[EC 1.14.13.24 created 1984]

EC 1.14.13.25

Accepted name: methane monooxygenase (soluble)

Reaction: methane + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = methanol + NAD(P)+ + H2O

Other name(s): methane hydroxylase

Systematic name: methane,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating)

Comments: The enzyme is soluble, in contrast to the particulate enzyme, EC 1.14.18.3. Broad specificity; many alkanes can be hydroxylated, and alkenes are converted into the corresponding epoxides; CO is oxidized to CO2, ammonia is oxidized to hydroxylamine, and some aromatic compounds and cyclic alkanes can also be hydroxylated, but more slowly.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 51961-97-8

References:

1. Colby, J. Stirling, D.I. and Dalton, H. The soluble methane mono-oxygenase of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Its ability to oxygenate n-alkanes, n-alkenes, ethers, and alicyclic, aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Biochem. J. 165 (1977) 395-402. [PMID: 411486]

2. Hyman, M.R. and Wood, P.M. Methane oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea. Biochem. J. 212 (1983) 31-37. [PMID: 6870854]

3. Stirling, D.I. and Dalton, H. Properties of the methane mono-oxygenase from extracts of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and evidence for its similarity to the enzyme from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath). Eur. J. Biochem. 96 (1979) 205-212. [PMID: 572296]

4. Tonge, G.M., Harrison, D.E.F. and Higgins, I.J. Purification and properties of the methane mono-oxygenase enzyme system from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Biochem. J. 161 (1977) 333-344. [PMID: 15544]

[EC 1.14.13.25 created 1984, modified 2011]

[EC 1.14.13.26 Transferred entry: phosphatidylcholine 12-monooxygenase. Now classified as EC 1.14.18.4, phosphatidylcholine 12-monooxygenase. (EC 1.14.13.26 created 1984, deleted 2015)]

EC 1.14.13.27

Accepted name: 4-aminobenzoate 1-monooxygenase

Reaction: 4-aminobenzoate + NAD(P)H + 2 H+ + O2 = 4-hydroxyaniline + NAD(P)+ + H2O + CO2

Other name(s): 4-aminobenzoate hydroxylase; 4-aminobenzoate monooxygenase

Systematic name: 4-aminobenzoate,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (1-hydroxylating, decarboxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). Acts on anthranilate and 4-aminosalicylate but not on salicylate (cf. EC 1.14.13.1 salicylate 1-monooxygenase).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 98668-55-4

References:

1. Tsuji, H., Ogawa, T., Bando, N. and Sasaoka, K. Purification and properties of 4-aminobenzoate hydroxylase, a new monooxygenase from Agaricus bisporus. J. Biol. Chem. 261 (1986) 13203-13209. [PMID: 3489713]

[EC 1.14.13.27 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.28

Accepted name: 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6a-monooxygenase

Reaction: (6aR,11aR)-3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (6aS,11aS)-3,6a,9-trihydroxypterocarpan + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here.

Other name(s): 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6a-hydroxylase; 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6α-monooxygenase (erroneous)

Systematic name: (6aR,11aR)-3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6a-hydroxylating)

Comments: Possibly a heme-thiolate protein (P-450). The product of the reaction is the biosynthetic precursor of the phytoalexin glyceollin in soybean.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 92584-16-2

References:

1. Hagmann, M.-L., Heller, W. and Grisebach, H. Induction of phytoalexin synthesis in soybean. Stereospecific 3,9-dihydroxypterocarpan 6a-hydroxylase from elicitor-induced soybean cell cultures.Eur. J. Biochem. 142 (1984) 127-131. [PMID: 6540173]

[EC 1.14.13.28 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.29

Accepted name: 4-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase

Reaction: 4-nitrophenol + NADH + H+ + O2 = 4-nitrocatechol + NAD+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase; 4-nitrophenol-2-hydroxylase

Systematic name: 4-nitrophenol,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 91116-87-9

References:

1. Mitra, D. and Vaidyanathan, C.S. A new 4-nitrophenol 2-hydroxylase from a Nocardia sp. Biochem. Int. 8 (1984) 609-615. [PMID: 6477623]

[EC 1.14.13.29 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.30

Accepted name: leukotriene-B4 20-monooxygenase

Reaction: (6Z,8E,10E,14Z)-(5S,12R)-5,12-dihydroxyicosa-6,8,10,14-tetraenoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = (6Z,8E,10E,14Z)-(5S,12R)-5,12,20-trihydroxyicosa-6,8,10,14-tetraenoate + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): leukotriene-B4 20-hydroxylase; leucotriene-B4 ω-hydroxylase; LTB4 20-hydroxylase; LTB4 ω-hydroxylase

Systematic name: (6Z,8E,10E,14Z)-(5S,12R)-5,12-dihydroxyicosa-6,8,10,14-tetraenoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating)

Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450). Not identical with EC 1.14.13.34, leukotriene-E4 20-monooxygenase.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 90119-11-2

References:

1. Romano, M.C., Eckardt, R.D., Bender, P.E., Leonard, T.B., Straub, K.M. and Newton, J.F. Biochemical characterization of hepatic microsomal leukotriene B4 hydroxylases. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 1590-1595. [PMID: 3027095]

2. Shak, S. and Goldstein, I.M. Leukotriene B4 ω-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Partial purification and identification as a cytochrome P-450. J. Clin. Invest. 76 (1985) 1218-1228. [PMID: 4044832]

3. Soberman, R.J., Harper, T.W., Murphy, R.C. and Austen, K.F. Identification and functional characterization of leukotriene B4 20-hydroxylase of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82 (1985) 2292-2295. [PMID: 2986111]

[EC 1.14.13.30 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.31

Accepted name: 2-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase

Reaction: 2-nitrophenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = catechol + nitrite + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): 2-nitrophenol oxygenase; nitrophenol oxygenase

Systematic name: 2-nitrophenol,NADPH:oxygen 2-oxidoreductase (2-hydroxylating, nitrite-forming)

Comments: Involved in the metabolism of nitro-aromatic compounds by a strain of Pseudomonas putida.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 104520-84-5

References:

1. Zeyer, J., Kocher, H.P. and Timmis, N. Influence of para-substituents on the oxidative metabolism of o-nitrophenols by Pseudomonas putida B2. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52 (1986) 334-339. [PMID: 3752997]

[EC 1.14.13.31 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.32

Accepted name: albendazole monooxygenase

Reaction: albendazole + NADPH + H+ + O2 = albendazole S-oxide + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): albendazole oxidase; albendazole sulfoxidase

Systematic name: albendazole,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (sulfoxide-forming)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 101299-59-6

References:

1. Fargetton, X., Galtier, P. and Delatour, P. Sulfoxidation of albendazole by a cytochrome P450-independent monooxygenase from rat liver microsomes. Vet. Res. Commun. 10 (1986) 317-324. [PMID: 3739217]

[EC 1.14.13.32 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.33

Accepted name: 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase [NAD(P)H]

Reaction: 4-hydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NAD(P)+ + H2O

Other name(s): 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)); 4-hydroxybenzoate-3-hydroxylase; 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-hydroxylase

Systematic name: 4-hydroxybenzoate,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme from Corynebacterium cyclohexanicum is highly specific for 4-hydroxybenzoate, but uses NADH and NADPH at approximately equal rates (cf. EC 1.14.13.2 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase). It is less specific for NADPH than EC 1.14.13.2.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 95471-33-3

References:

1. Fujii, T. and Kaneda, T. Purification and properties of NADH/NADPH-dependent p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Corynebacterium cyclohexanicum. Eur. J. Biochem. 147 (1985) 97-104. [PMID: 3971979]

2. Seibold, B., Matthes, M., Eppink, M.H., Lingens, F., Van Berkel, W.J. and Muller, R. 4-Hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase from Pseudomonas sp. CBS3. Purification, characterization, gene cloning, sequence analysis and assignment of structural features determining the coenzyme specificity. Eur. J. Biochem. 239 (1996) 469-478. [PMID: 8706756]

[EC 1.14.13.33 created 1989, modified 1999]

EC 1.14.13.34

Accepted name: leukotriene-E4 20-monooxygenase

Reaction: (7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-(5S,6R)-6-(cystein-S-yl)-5-hydroxyicosa-7,9,11,14-tetraenoate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 20-hydroxyleukotriene E4 + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): leukotriene-E4 ω-hydroxylase

Systematic name: (7E,9E,11Z,14Z)-(5S,6R)-6-(cystein-S-yl)-5-hydroxyicosa-7,9,11,14-tetraenoate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (20-hydroxylating)

Comments: Also acts on N-acetyl-leucotriene E4, but more slowly. Not identical with EC 1.14.13.30 leukotriene-B4 20-monooxygenase.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 111940-51-3

References:

1. Örning, L. ω-Oxidation of cysteine-containing leukotrienes by rat-liver microsomes. Isolation and characterization of ω-hydroxy and ω-carboxy metabolites of leukotriene E4 and N-acetylleukotriene E4. Eur. J. Biochem. 170 (1987) 77-85. [PMID: 2826163]

[EC 1.14.13.34 created 1989]

EC 1.14.13.35

Accepted name: anthranilate 3-monooxygenase (deaminating)

Reaction: anthranilate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate + NADP+ + NH3

Other name(s): anthranilate hydroxylase; anthranilate 2,3-dioxygenase (deaminating); anthranilate hydroxylase (deaminating); anthranilic hydroxylase; anthranilate 2,3-hydroxylase (deaminating)

Systematic name: anthranilate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating, deaminating)

Comments: The enzyme from Aspergillus niger is an iron protein; that from the yeast Trichosporon cutaneum is a flavoprotein (FAD). Previously EC 1.14.12.2.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 37256-68-1

References:

1. Powlowski, J.B., Dagley, S., Massey, V. and Ballou, D.P. Properties of anthranilate hydroxylase (deaminating), a flavoprotein from Trichosporon cutaneum. J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 69-74. [PMID: 3793735]

2. Subramanian, V. and Vaidyanathan, C.S. Anthranilate hydroxylase from Aspergillus niger: new type of NADPH-linked nonheme iron monooxygenase. J. Bacteriol. 160 (1984) 651-655. [PMID: 6501219]

[EC 1.14.13.35 created 1972 as EC 1.14.12.2, transferred 1990 to EC 1.14.13.35]

EC 1.14.13.36

Accepted name: 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate 3'-monooxygenase

Reaction: trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate + NADPH + H+ + O2 = trans-5-O-caffeoyl-D-quinate + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase; coumaroylquinate(coumaroylshikimate) 3'-monooxygenase

Systematic name: trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3'-hydroxylating)

Comments: Also acts on trans-5-O-(4-coumaroyl)shikimate.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 112131-08-5

References:

1. Kühnl, T., Koch, U., Heller, W. and Wellman, E. Chlorogenic acid biosynthesis: characterization of a light-induced microsomal 5-O-(4-coumaroyl)-D-quinate/shikimate 3'-hydroxylase from carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell suspension cultures. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 258 (1987) 226-232. [PMID: 2821918]

[EC 1.14.13.36 created 1990]

EC 1.14.13.37

Accepted name: methyltetrahydroprotoberberine 14-monooxygenase

Reaction: (S)-N-methylcanadine + NADPH + H+ + O2 = allocryptopine + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here or here.

Other name(s): methyltetrahydroprotoberberine 14-hydroxylase; (S)-cis-N-methyltetrahydroberberine 14-monooxygenase; (S)-cis-N-methyltetrahydroprotoberberine-14-hydroxylase

Systematic name: (S)-N-methylcanadine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (14-hydroxylating)

Comments: A heme-thiolate protein (P-450).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 113478-42-5

References:

1. Rueffer, M. and Zenk, M.H. Enzymatic formation of protopines by a microsomal cytochrome-P-450 system of Corydalis vaginans. Tetrahedron Lett. 28 (1987) 5307-5310.

[EC 1.14.13.37 created 1990]

EC 1.14.13.38

Accepted name: anhydrotetracycline 6-monooxygenase

Reaction: anhydrotetracycline + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 12-dehydrotetracycline + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Glossary: anhydrotetracycline = (4S,4aS,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)-3,10,11,12a-tetrahydroxy-6-methyl-1,12-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,12,12a-hexahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
12-dehydrotetracycline = (4S,4aS,6S,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)-3,6,10,12a-tetrahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11,12-trioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,11,12,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide

Other name(s): ATC oxygenase; anhydrotetracycline oxygenase; oxyS (gene name); anhydrotetracycline monooxygenase

Systematic name: anhydrotetracycline,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6-hydroxylating)

Comments: The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Streptomyces rimosus, participates in the biosynthesis of tetracycline antibiotics. It can also catalyse EC 1.14.13.234, 12-dehydrotetracycline 5-monooxygenase.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number: 70766-62-0

References:

1. Behal, V., Hostalek, Z. and Vanek, Z. Anhydrotetracycline oxygenase activity and biosynthesis of tetracyclines in streptomyces aureofaciens. Biotechnol. Lett. 1 (1979) 177-182.

2. Binnie, C., Warren, M. and Butler, M.J. Cloning and heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans of Streptomyces rimosus genes involved in oxytetracycline biosynthesis. J. Bacteriol. 171 (1989) 887-895. [PMID: 2914874]

3. Vancurova, I., Volc, J., Flieger, M., Neuzil, J., Novotna, J., Vlach, J. and Behal, V. Isolation of pure anhydrotetracycline oxygenase from Streptomyces aureofaciens. Biochem. J. 253 (1988) 263-267. [PMID: 3138982]

4. Wang, P., Bashiri, G., Gao, X., Sawaya, M.R. and Tang, Y. Uncovering the enzymes that catalyze the final steps in oxytetracycline biosynthesis. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135 (2013) 7138-7141. [PMID: 23621493]

[EC 1.14.13.38 created 1990, modified 2016]

EC 1.14.13.39

Accepted name: nitric-oxide synthase (NADPH)

Reaction: 2 L-arginine + 3 NADPH + 3 H+ + 4 O2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + 3 NADP+ + 4 H2O (overall reaction)
(1a) 2 L-arginine + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ + 2 O2 = 2 Nω-hydroxy-L-arginine + 2 NADP+ + 2 H2O
(1b) 2 Nω-hydroxy-L-arginine + NADPH + H+ + 2 O2 = 2 L-citrulline + 2 nitric oxide + NADP+ + 2 H2O

Glossary: nitric oxide = NO = nitrogen(II) oxide

Other name(s): NOS (gene name); nitric oxide synthetase (ambiguous); endothelium-derived relaxation factor-forming enzyme; endothelium-derived relaxing factor synthase; NO synthase (ambiguous); NADPH-diaphorase (ambiguous)

Systematic name: L-arginine,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (nitric-oxide-forming)

Comments: The enzyme consists of linked oxygenase and reductase domains. The eukaryotic enzyme binds FAD, FMN, heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) and tetrahydrobiopterin, and its two domains are linked via a regulatory calmodulin-binding domain. Upon calcium-induced calmodulin binding, the reductase and oxygenase domains form a complex, allowing electrons to flow from NADPH via FAD and FMN to the active center. The reductase domain of the enzyme from the bacterium Sorangium cellulosum utilizes a [2Fe-2S] cluster to transfer the electrons from NADPH to the active center. cf. EC 1.14.14.47, nitric-oxide synthase (flavodoxin).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 125978-95-2

References:

1. Bredt, D.S. and Snyder, S.H. Isolation of nitric oxide synthetase, a calmodulin-requiring enzyme. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87 (1990) 682-685. [PMID: 1689048]

2. Stuehr, D.J., Kwon, N.S., Nathan, C.F., Griffith, O.W., Feldman, P.L. and Wiseman, J. Nω-hydroxy-L-arginine is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. J. Biol. Chem. 266 (1991) 6259-6263. [PMID: 1706713]

3. Stuehr, D., Pou, S. and Rosen, G.M. Oxygen reduction by nitric-oxide synthases. J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 14533-14536. [PMID: 11279231]

4. Agapie, T., Suseno, S., Woodward, J.J., Stoll, S., Britt, R.D. and Marletta, M.A. NO formation by a catalytically self-sufficient bacterial nitric oxide synthase from Sorangium cellulosum. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106 (2009) 16221-16226. [PMID: 19805284]

5. Foresi, N., Correa-Aragunde, N., Parisi, G., Calo, G., Salerno, G. and Lamattina, L. Characterization of a nitric oxide synthase from the plant kingdom: NO generation from the green alga Ostreococcus tauri is light irradiance and growth phase dependent. Plant Cell 22 (2010) 3816-3830. [PMID: 21119059]

[EC 1.14.13.39 created 1992, modified 2012, modified 2017]

EC 1.14.13.40

Accepted name: anthraniloyl-CoA monooxygenase

Reaction: anthraniloyl-CoA + 2 NAD(P)H + 2 H+ + O2 = 2-amino-5-oxocyclohex-1-enecarboxyl-CoA + H2O + 2 NAD(P)+

Glossary: anthraniloyl-CoA = 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA

Other name(s): anthraniloyl coenzyme A reductase; 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase; 2-aminobenzoyl-CoA,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (de-aromatizing)

Systematic name: anthraniloyl-CoA,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (de-aromatizing)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The non-aromatic product is unstable and releases CO2 and NH3, forming 1,4-cyclohexanedione.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 112692-57-6

References:

1. Buder, R. and Fuchs, G. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase, a novel type of flavoenzyme. Purification and some properties of the enzyme. Eur. J. Biochem. 185 (1989) 629-635. [PMID: 2591379]

2. Buder, R., Ziegler, K., Fuchs, G., Langkau, B. and Ghisla, S. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase, a novel type of flavoenzyme. Studies on the stoichiometry and the course of the reaction. Eur. J. Biochem. 185 (1989) 637-643. [PMID: 2591380]

3. Langkau, B., Ghisla, S., Buder, R., Ziegler, K. and Fuchs, G. 2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA monooxygenase/reductase, a novel type of flavoenzyme. Identification of the reaction products. Eur. J. Biochem. 191 (1990) 365-371. [PMID: 2384085]

[EC 1.14.13.40 created 1992]

[EC 1.14.13.41 Transferred entry: tyrosine N-monooxygenase. Now EC 1.14.14.36, tyrosine N-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.41 created 1992, modified 2001, modified 2005, deleted 2016)]

[EC 1.14.13.42 Deleted entry: hydroxyphenylacetonitrile 2-monooxygenase. The activity is covered by EC 1.14.13.68, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime monooxygenase, that performs the two consecutive reactions in the conversion of (Z)-4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde oxime to (S)-4-hydroxymandelonitrile (EC 1.14.13.42 created 1992, deleted 2011)]

EC 1.14.13.43

Accepted name: questin monooxygenase

Reaction: questin + NADPH + H+ + O2 = demethylsulochrin + NADP+

Glossary: questin = 3,8-dihydroxy-1-methoxy-6-methylanthracene-9,10-dione
demethylsulochrin = 2-(2,6-dihydroxy-4-methylbenzoyl)-5-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid

Other name(s): questin oxygenase

Systematic name: questin,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating, anthraquinone-ring-opening)

Comments: The enzyme cleaves the anthraquinone ring of questin to form a benzophenone. Involved in the biosynthesis of the seco-anthraquinone (+)-geodin.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 115232-45-6

References:

1. Fujii, I., Ebizuka, Y. and Sankawa, U. A novel anthraquinone ring cleavage enzyme from Aspergillus terreus. J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 103 (1988) 878-883. [PMID: 3182756]

[EC 1.14.13.43 created 1992]

EC 1.14.13.44

Accepted name: 2-hydroxybiphenyl 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: 2-hydroxybiphenyl + NADH + H+ + O2 = 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl + NAD+ + H2O

Systematic name: 2-hydroxybiphenyl,NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: Also converts 2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl into 2,2',3-trihydroxy-biphenyl.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 118251-39-1

References:

1. Kohler, H.-P.E., Kohler-Staub, D. and Focht, D.D. Degradation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and 2,2'-dihydroxybiphenyl by Pseudomonas sp. strain HBP1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54 (1988) 2683-2688. [PMID: 3214154]

[EC 1.14.13.44 created 1992]

[EC 1.14.13.45 Transferred entry: now EC 1.14.18.2 CMP-N-acetylneuraminate monooxygenase. (EC 1.14.13.45 created 1992, deleted 2003)]

EC 1.14.13.46

Accepted name: (–)-menthol monooxygenase

Reaction: (–)-menthol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = p-menthane-3,8-diol + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram of reaction click here.

Other name(s): l-menthol monooxygenase

Systematic name: (–)-menthol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (8-hydroxylating)

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 117590-75-7

References:

1. Madyastha, K.M. and Srivatsan, V. Studies on the metabolism of l-menthol in rats. Drug Metab. Dispos. 16 (1988) 765-772. [PMID: 2906604]

[EC 1.14.13.46 created 1992]

EC 1.14.13.47

Accepted name: (S)-limonene 3-monooxygenase

Reaction: (S)-limonene + NADPH + H+ + O2 = trans-isopiperitenol + NADP+ + H2O

For diagram click here.

Glossary:
limonene: a monoterpenoid
(S)-limonene = (–)-limonene

Other name(s): (–)-limonene 3-hydroxylase; (–)-limonene 3-monooxygenase; (–)-limonene,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Systematic name: (S)-limonene,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)

Comments: High specificity, but NADH can act instead of NADPH, although more slowly. A heme-thiolate protein (P-450).

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 138066-92-9

References:

1. Karp, F., Mihaliak, C.A., Harris, J.L. and Croteau, R. Monoterpene biosynthesis: specificity of the hydroxylations of (–)-limonene by enzyme preparations from peppermint (Mentha piperita), spearmint (Mentha spicata), and perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaves. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276 (1990) 219-226. [PMID: 2297225]

[EC 1.14.13.47 created 1992, modified 2003]

[EC 1.14.13.48 Transferred entry: (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase. Now classified as EC 1.14.14.51, (S)-limonene 6-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.48 created 1992, modified 2003, deleted 2017)]

[EC 1.14.13.49 Transferred entry: (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase. Now classified as EC 1.14.14.52, (S)-limonene 7-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.13.49 created 1992, modified 2003, deleted 2017)]

EC 1.14.13.50

Accepted name: pentachlorophenol monooxygenase

Reaction: (1) pentachlorophenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone + NADP+ + chloride + H2O
(2) 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol + NADPH + H+ + O2 = 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorohydroquinone + NADP+ + H2O

Other name(s): pcpB (gene name); pentachlorophenol dechlorinase; pentachlorophenol dehalogenase; pentachlorophenol 4-monooxygenase; PCP hydroxylase; pentachlorophenol hydroxylase; PCB 4-monooxygenase; PCB4MO

Systematic name: pentachlorophenol,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (hydroxylating, dechlorinating)

Comments: A flavoprotein (FAD). The enzyme displaces a diverse range of substituents from the 4-position of polyhalogenated phenols but requires that a halogen substituent be present at the 2-position [2]. If C-4 carries a halogen substituent, reaction 1 is catalysed; if C-4 is unsubstituted, reaction 2 is catalysed.

Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, UM-BBD, CAS registry number: 136111-57-4

References:

1. Schenk, T., Müller, R., Mörsberger, F., Otto, M.K. and Lingens, F. Enzymatic dehalogenation of pentachlorophenol by extracts from Arthrobacter sp. strain ATCC 33790. J. Bacteriol. 171 (1989) 5487-5491. [PMID: 2793827]

2. Xun, L., Topp, E. and Orser, C.S. Diverse substrate range of a Flavobacterium pentachlorophenol hydroxylase and reaction stoichiometries. J. Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 2898-2902. [PMID: 1569020]

3. Xun, L., Topp, E. and Orser, C.S. Confirmation of oxidative dehalogenation of pentachlorophenol by a Flavobacterium pentachlorophenol hydroxylase. J. Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 5745-5747. [PMID: 1512208]

4. Lange, C.C., Schneider, B.J. and Orser, C.S. Verification of the role of PCP 4-monooxygenase in chlorine elimination from pentachlorophenol by Flavobacterium sp. strain ATCC 39723. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 219 (1996) 146-149. [PMID: 8619798]

5. Nakamura, T., Motoyama, T., Hirono, S. and Yamaguchi, I. Identification, characterization, and site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant pentachlorophenol 4-monooxygenase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1700 (2004) 151-159. [PMID: 15262224]

6. Chen, L. and Yang, J. Biochemical characterization of the tetrachlorobenzoquinone reductase involved in the biodegradation of pentachlorophenol. Int J Mol Sci 9 (2008) 198-212. [PMID: 19325743]

7. Hlouchova, K., Rudolph, J., Pietari, J.M., Behlen, L.S. and Copley, S.D. Pentachlorophenol hydroxylase, a poorly functioning enzyme required for degradation of pentachlorophenol by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum. Biochemistry 51 (2012) 3848-3860. [PMID: 22482720]

8. Rudolph, J., Erbse, A.H., Behlen, L.S. and Copley, S.D. A radical intermediate in the conversion of pentachlorophenol to tetrachlorohydroquinone by Sphingobium chlorophenolicum. Biochemistry 53 (2014) 6539-6549. [PMID: 25238136]

[EC 1.14.13.50 created 1992, modified 2005, modified 2017]


Continued with EC 1.14.13.51 to EC 1.14.13.100
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